EL PODER DEL INTERNET… YA ESTAMOS TODOS VIGILADOS

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Por Bruce Schneier, especial para CNN.

Nota del editor: Bruce Schneier es un especialista en seguridad informática y es autor de Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust Society Needs to Survive.

(CNN) — Voy a empezar con tres datos.

Uno: Algunos de los hackers militares de China que están implicados en varios ataques contra el gobierno y corporaciones estadounidenses fueron identificados porque accedieron a Facebook desde la misma infraestructura red que usaron para llevar a cabo sus ataques.

Dos: Hector Monsegur, uno de los líderes del movimiento hacker LulzSac, fue identificado y arrestado el año pasado por el FBI. Aunque tuvo buena seguridad computacional y usó un servicio anónimo de relevo para proteger su identidad, se descuidó.

Y tres: Paula Broadwell, quien tuvo un romance con el director de la CIA David Petraeus, tuvo las mismas precauciones para esconder su identidad. Nunca ingresó a su correo electrónico anónimo desde la red de su casa. En vez, usaba redes de hoteles u otras redes públicas cuando le escribía a Petraeus. El FBI correlacionó los datos de registro de hoteles en varios establecimientos y su nombre era el común denominador.

Internet es un estado de vigilancia. No importa si lo admitimos o no, o si nos gusta o no, estamos siendo rastreados todo el tiempo. Google nos rastrea, tanto en sus páginas como en otras páginas a las que accedemos. Facebook hace lo mismo; incluso rastrea a los que no son usuarios de Facebook. Apple nos rastrea en nuestros iPhones y iPads. Un reportero usó una herramienta llamada Collusion para rastrear quién los rastreaba: 105 compañías rastrearon su comportamiento en internet durante un periodo de 36 horas.

Cada vez más, lo que hacemos en Internet está siendo combinado con otros datos sobre nosotros. Desenmascarar la identidad de Broadwell implicó correlacionar su actividad de internet con sus alojamientos en hoteles. Todo lo que hacemos ahora involucra computadoras, y las computadoras producen información como un subproducto natural. Todo ahora es almacenado y correlacionado, y muchas compañías hacen dinero al construir perfiles íntimos de nuestras vidas a partir de varias fuentes.

Facebook, por ejemplo, correlacione tu comportamiento en línea con tus hábitos de compras. Y hay más. Hay información de ubicación desde tu celular, hay un registro de tus movimientos en circuitos cerrados de televisión.
Esto es una vigilancia ubicua: todos nosotros estamos siendo observados, todo el tiempo, y la información está siendo almacenada para siempre. Así es como se ve un estado de vigilancia, y es eficiente más allá de los sueños más locos de George Orwell.

Claro, podemos tomar medidas para evitarlo. Podemos limitar lo que buscamos en Google en nuestros iPhones, y en vez usar navegadores que nos permitan eliminar cookies. Podemos usar un alias en Facebook. Podemos apagar nuestros celulares y gastar efectivo. Pero cada vez más, nada de eso importa.

Simplemente hay demasiadas formas para que uno sea rastreado. Internet, correo electrónico, celulares, navegadores web, redes sociales, motores de búsqueda: se han vuelto necesidades, y es ilusorio esperar que las personas se nieguen a usarlos sólo porque no les gusta ser espiados, especialmente porque el alcance de ese espionaje es deliberadamente oculto para nosotros y hay pocas alternativas comercializadas por compañías que no espían.

Esto no es algo que el libre mercado pueda reparar. Nosotros los consumidores no tenemos opción. Todas las grandes compañías que nos proporcionan servicios de internet están interesadas en rastrearnos. Visita una página web y casi es seguro que ese sitio sepa quién eres; hay muchas formas para ser rastreado sin cookies. Las compañías celulares suelen deshacer la protección de la privacidad. Un experimento en Carnegie Mellon tomó videos en tiempo real de estudiantes en campus y fue capaz de identificar a un tercio de ellos al comparar sus fotos con sus imágenes públicas etiquetadas en Facebook.

Mantener la privacidad en internet es casi imposible. Si te olvidas sólo una vez de habilitar tus protecciones, o haces clic en el enlace equivocado, o si escribes lo que no debías, y si relacionaste permanentemente tu nombre con cualquier servicio anónimo que uses. Monsegur sólo se descuidó una vez, y el FBI lo capturó. Si el director de la CIA no puede mantener la privacidad en internet, entonces no tenemos esperanza.

En el mundo de hoy, los gobierno y las corporaciones trabajan juntos para mantener las cosas de esa manera. A los gobiernos les complace usar los datos que las corporaciones recogen —ocasionalmente pidiéndoles que recojan más y los almacenen por más tiempo— para espiarnos. Y a las corporaciones les complace comprar información de los gobiernos. Juntos, los poderosos espían a los que no tienen poder, y no van a ceder sus posiciones de poder a pesar de lo que la gente quiere.

Solucionar esto exige una fuerte voluntad de los gobiernos, pero están tan adictos a la información como las corporaciones. A pesar de las multas, nadie se está movilizando para tener mejore leyes de privacidad.
Así que eso es todo. Bienvenido al mundo en que Google sabe exactamente qué tipo de pornografía te gusta, y sabe más de tus intereses que tu pareja. Bienvenido a un mundo en el que la compañía de celular sabe exactamente en donde estás todo el tiempo. Bienvenido al fin de las conversaciones privadas, porque cada vez más tus conversaciones se hacen a través de correo electrónico, mensajes de texto o redes sociales.

Y bienvenido al mundo en donde todo esto, y todo lo demás que hagas o que se haga en una computadora, es almacenado, correlacionado, estudiado y entregado de compañía a compañía sin que tú lo sepas o hayas aprobado; y en donde el gobierno accede a todo sin permiso.

Bienvenido al Internet sin privacidad. Hemos llegado a este punto sin siquiera dar una pelea.

Fuente: CNN

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